Ancient Egypt

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Gaza pyramid

Predynastic Period (c. 5000-3100 B.C. )

Archaic Period (Early Dynastic), c. 3100-386 B.C. )

Old Kingdom: Age of the Pyramid Buildings (c. 2686-2181 B.C. )

First Intermediate Period (c.2181-2055 B.C. )

Middle Kingdom: 12th Dynasty (c. 2055-1786 B.C. )

Second Intermediate Period (c.1786-1567 B.C. )

New Kingdom (c.1567-1085 B.C. )

Third Intermediate Period (c.1085-664 B.C. )

From the Late Period to Alexander’s Conquest (c.664-332 B.C. )

From its unification in 3100 B.C. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C., Egypt has been a dominant civilization for almost 30 centuries. From its unification in 3100 B.C. to Alexander the Great’s conquest in 332 B.C., ancient Egypt was the most important civilization in the Mediterranean. Egyptology is a field of study that focuses on Egypt’s history and majesty. It includes the Old Kingdom’s great pyramids and the military conquests. Information about ancient Egypt is mainly derived from the numerous monuments, objects, and artifacts found at archaeological sites. These are covered in hieroglyphs that have just been deciphered. It is a culture with few equals in beauty, architecture, and rich religious traditions. Predynastic Period (c. 5000-3100 B.C.) The Predynastic Period has been largely forgotten. It encompassed approximately 2,000 years of the gradual growth of Egyptian civilization. Did you know? His wife, Nefertiti, played an essential role in the religious and political affairs of the monotheistic sun god Aton during Akhenaton’s rule. Images and sculptures depicting Nefertiti show her outstanding beauty and function of the living goddess fertility. Neolithic (late Stone Age) communities in northeastern Africa exchanged hunting and agriculture. They also made early advances that allowed for Egyptian technology and political development. Two separate kingdoms were founded near the Fertile Crescent in 3400 B.C. These kingdoms were located in an area that is home to some of the oldest civilizations in the world: the Red Land to its north, based on the Nile River Delta, and stretching along the Nile, possibly to Atfih; the White Land to the south, stretching between Atfih and Gebel es-Silsila. Around 3200 B.C., a southern king, Scorpion, made the first attempts at conquering the northern kingdom. One century later, King Menes would conquer the north and unify the country. He became the first king of any dynasty. Archaic (Early Dynastic Period) (c. 3100-386 B.C. King Menes established the capital of Egypt in ancient Egypt at White Walls (later called Memphis), in northern Egypt, close to the Nile River Delta. The money would become a major metropolis, which dominated Egyptian society in the Old Kingdom period. The Archaic Period witnessed the establishment of the foundations for Egyptian society, which included the vital ideology of kingship. The king was an ancient Egyptian god closely associated with the all-powerful god Horus. This period also includes the earliest hieroglyphic writing. As in all periods, the Archaic Period saw most Egyptians living as farmers in small villages. Agriculture (mainly wheat and barley) was the economic foundation of Egypt’s state. Farmers sowed wheat after the annual floods of the great Nile River and harvested it before the drought, and high temperatures returned. Old Kingdom: Age of the Pyramid Buildings (c. 2686-2181 B.C. The Old Kingdom was established by the third dynasty pharaohs. The third Dynasty of pharaohs began in 2630 B.C. when King Djoser, the third Dynasty’s ruler, asked Imhotep to design a funerary memorial for him. It was the first major stone building in the world, the Step Pyramid near Saqqara. The Egyptian pyramid-building reached its zenith when the Great Pyramid was built at Giza, just outside of Cairo. The pyramid was built for Khufu (or Cheops in Greek), who ruled between 2589 and 2566 B.C. Later, classical historians named it one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It took 100,000 men 20 years to build, according to Greek historical historian Herodotus. For Khufu’s successors Khafra (2558-2532 B.C.) and Menkaura (25325-2503 B.C.), two other pyramids were constructed at Giza. ). Egypt experienced a golden age of peace and prosperity during the third and fourth Dynasties. The pharaohs ruled the country and maintained a stable central government. There were no threats to Egypt’s sovereignty; it was not threatened by outsiders. It also enjoyed a lot of economic success thanks to successful military campaigns in countries like Nubia or Libya. The king’s wealth declined steadily over the sixth and fifth dynasties. This was partly due to the high cost of building pyramids. His absolute power also fell in the face of the increasing influence of the nobility, as well as the priesthood that grew around the sun god Ra (Re). The Old Kingdom ended with the death of King Pepy II (the sixth Dynasty’s ruler), who ruled for approximately 94 years. First Intermediate Period (c.2181-2055 B.C. The Old Kingdom was destroyed, and the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties were dominated by a succession of Memphis-based rulers. This continued until 2160 B.C., when the central authority collapsed, causing a civil war between the provincial governors. The chaos was exacerbated by Bedouin invasions, which were accompanied by famines and diseases. Two kingdoms emerged from this conflict: One was a line of 17 rulers (dynasties 9 and 10) who were based in Heracleopolis. The other family of rulers arose in Thebes to challenge Heracleopolitan control. Theban prince Mentuhotep, a Theban, overthrew Heracleopolis in 2055 B.C. and reunited Egypt. This began the 11th Dynasty and ended the First Intermediate Period.

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